DEFINITIONS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)
1. A holistic management philosophy that strives for continuous improvement in all functions of an organization, and it can be achieved only if the total quality concept is utilized from the acquisition of resources to customer service after the sale. (Kaynak, 2003).
2. A fhilosophy or an approach to management made up of a set of mutually reinforcing principles, each of which is supported by a set of practices and techniques (Dean dan Bowen, 1994)
3. An integrated approach to achieving and sustaining high quality output, focusing on the maintenance and continuous improvement of processes and defect prevention at all levels and in all functions of the organization, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations (Flynn, Schroeder, dan Sakakibara (1994).